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The Quest for the Super Soldier Formula

The Quest for the Super Soldier Formula


The One Shot Miracle to a Perfect Body

Following Marvel Comics is like beginning a lifelong adventure into fantasy and pseudo-science. That’s not meant to be an insult. Just as I can say that every man, woman, and child following Star Trek needs to know most of the science in the show is just made up and combined with real science to make a logical flow for a good story.

Abraham Erskine with a pre Captain America Steve Rogers
Abraham Erskine with a pre Captain America Steve Rogers

One of the longest running plot threads to the MU has been the quest for the super-soldier formula. As part of Project: Rebirth, this formula made scrawny pint-sized weakling, Steve Rogers, into the unstoppable patriotic fighting machine known as Captain America. The formula was the brainchild of Doctor Abraham Erskine (code named: Josef Reinstein) and has never been successfully reproduced after his untimely death. As Erskine was killed shortly after its first successful application, he never got the opportunity to commit the final version of the formula to paper. Steve Rogers remains one of the few successful recipients of the formula. The working theory was the formula could only successfully work after stabilization through “vita-rays”.

The true effects of the super-soldier formula leave the recipient with peak human conditioning, strength, stamina, dexterity, coordination, balance, reflexes and reaction time far greater than any Olympic athlete could possibly achieve. What’s more, the formula speeds healing time and eliminates toxins from the recipients’ bloodstreams (both natural fatigue poisons and administered poisons). The byproduct of this is enhanced endurance, immunity to diseases, and slower aging.

While it can safely be said the only successful recipient to the American version of the super soldier formula has been Steve Rogers (and with that his clone that housed the Red Skull’s mind), others have had mixed results with varying degrees of success and failure. What can be said is that in both the comics and in film, it remains a continuing quest for Marvel Universe scientists to either duplicate the super-soldier formula or come up with a new enhanced fighting machine ready to carry out missions for the government.


Super Soldier Failures

While Steve Rogers has been a poster boy for a successful trial of Project: Rebirth, several characters have not fared so well. Based solely on the early formulas of Erskine, in order to refine the formula, three hundred African-American soldiers were injected with the formula. Five survived. Throughout World War II, the only recipient of this formula to survive was Isaiah Bradley.

Isaiah Bradley, another Captain America
Isaiah Bradley, another Captain America

The only downside was eventually the formula began to affect Isaiah’s mind and body. The effects were similar to Alzheimer ’s disease.

There were two other people who attempted to use a surviving dose of the original super soldier formula. The first was William Burnside also known as “Steve Rogers”, also known as Captain America IV (the Commie Basher), also known as The Grand Director. Burnside, who was an obsessed Captain America fan back in the fifties, obtained one of the last surviving doses of the original super-soldier formulas used on Steve Rogers. When Rogers disappeared during the last days of World War II, two men had taken the mantle of Captain America. The third man, Jeffery Mace, had retired leaving no one to carry the Captain America name.

Burnside, after obtaining the formula, leveraged it to convince the government that he should be the next Captain America. After getting plastic surgery to resemble Steve Rogers, he was placed in a boy’s private school where he met a student, Jack Munroe. He used the super soldier formula on both himself and Monroe to make themselves the next Captain America and Bucky. Unfortunately, as they had not used the vita-ray treatment in along with the formula, both Burnside and Munroe began to slowly go insane. When this happened the government placed them in suspended animation.

As the Americans weren’t the only country attempting to create a super soldier formula, the Germans had also come up with their own. Their first attempt produced Master Man. Master Man was the German Übermensch with powers and abilities far beyond the peak human. Master Man had super strength, stamina, durability, speed, and could fly. What made Master Man a failure as a super-soldier was the instability and unreliability of the formula that periodically and unpredictably would reduce him to his frail pre-super soldier ninety-pound weakling self. This same formula, through an accident, produced the Nazi super-soldier woman, Warrior Woman. She has yet to experience a reversion to normal human levels.

In another attempt to recreate the formula, scientist Theodore “Ted” Sallis, had come up with his own variant while working on Project: Gladiator in the Florida Everglades. In addition to working on the formula, Sallis was in collaboration with Doctor Curt Connors shortly after Connors’ arm was amputated. Their research together would be the building blocks to Connors’ unsuccessful formula, turning him into The Lizard.

After a security breach in the lab by Sallis’ lover, Ellen Brandt, Sallis destroyed his own notes on the formula and attempted to escape with the only sample of his work. In his escape, his car went out of control. Sallis injected himself with the formula and crashed his car into the swamp.  The combination of both the unstable super soldier formula and magical forces in the swamp (present due to the lab’s close proximity to the mystical doorway known as the Nexus of All Realities), Sallis was transformed into the near mindless vegetation monster known as the Man-Thing.

A Giant Sized Man-Thing
A Giant Sized Man-Thing

The government, through the Weapon Plus program, took a darker turn when they began working outside what most people would call “ethical means”. Frank Simpson, an unstable child tricked into killing his mother by his babysitter, was kidnapped by Wolverine (who was working for the Weapon Plus program) for the purposes of using him as a future guinea pig for a new super soldier formula.

Simpson, who later became a black ops agent in Viet Nam, was systematically tortured by Wolverine until his mind broke. Wolverine carved an American flag into Simpson’s face and programmed him using methods similar to the ones used in The Manchurian Candidate. Tattooing over the scar with a red, white and blue flag, Simpson was later brought aboard Project: Homegrown where he was surgically made into a cyborg and given chemical pills to increase his adrenaline levels to his surgically-added second heart. Pills kept his levels stable and blue pills brought his adrenaline down. Simpson’s character was later brought into the live action series, Jessica Jones (sans the facial flag tattoo).

Nuke (Frank Simpson) as he's in comics and in the Jessica Simpson series on Netflix
Nuke (Frank Simpson) as he’s in comics and in the Jessica Simpson series on Netflix


Super Soldier Successes

Captain America isn’t the only super soldier. He’s just the one to benefit from Project: Rebirth.

As mentioned before with Master Man, the Germans were also working on their own version. German scientist, Eric Schmitt had also produced a working formula that enhanced human beings to peak levels.

One of the first successful versions came after Steve Rogers with an American journalist named Keen Marlow. Keen was being held prisoner in a German concentration camp. Schmitt, a scientist who had very anti-Nazi sentiments, injected Marlow with the German super soldier formula. Keene used his peak human powers to become the Golden Age mystery man known as The Destroyer. The same formula variant was also given to Keene’s friend, Brian Falsworth, who had taken up his father’s mantle as Union Jack.

Brian Falsworth as Union Jack
Brian Falsworth as Union Jack

The Americans continued their work pursuing a super-soldier with the offspring of Isaiah Bradley while keeping him prisoner. After Bradley was caught by the Nazis and rescued by German insurgents, he was later sent to Leavenworth in 1943 – until 1960 when President Eisenhower pardoned him. While in prison, the government took his DNA and placed it in surrogate mothers. In thirty-nine attempts, only one was successful. That child was known as Josiah X, who inherited all of the positive attributes of the super-soldier formula.

Another super-soldier program emerged. This time it wasn’t from the Nazis – it came from Russia during the cold war. One of the first known subjects to be a Soviet counterpart to Captain America was the Soviet super soldier known as the Red Guardian. However, none of the seven Marvel characters using that name had been exposed to any scientific transformation to be a super soldier. The Red Guardians were trained through a rigorous physical workout regimen and were outstanding athletes (with the exception of Dr. Tania Belinsky who gained superhuman powers outside government experimentation).

The program that actually led to a Soviet super-soldier came through their government’s “Red Room” program that produced the Black Widow. Natasha Romanova is both biotechnologically and psycho-technologically enhanced. All of the benefits of the super soldier formula have been recreated within her while not being part of a super soldier formula. The Black Widow has a slowed aging process as well as a peak human physique and a tolerance to fatigue making chemicals and toxins.

Scarlet Johansson as the Black Widow
Scarlet Johansson as the Black Widow

James Buchanan Barnes also known as Bucky and the Winter Soldier was one of them. Technically, he is a product of a super soldier program that gave him both a cybernetic arm and enhanced conditioning (without a formula). Barnes has also been trained by both the US as an operative as well as the Soviet Union in their programs.

A product of the super soldier program that is between success and failure is the subject known simply as Omega Red. This man, Arkady Rossovich, who was already a psychotic to begin with, was delivered to the KGB by the mutant known as Banshee. The KGB experimented on Rossovich and gave him retractable carbonadium tentacles within each of his arms. The carbonadium, while not adamantium, is virtually indestructible. The rest of his abilities came from his mutant heritage and near vampiric need to regularly take a life. While this could be considered a failure from some angles, we need to remember the subject started off crazy.

There is an entire team known as the Soviet Super Soldiers. The other members of the team include Vanguard, Darkstar, Gremlin, the Crimson Dynamo, and Ursa Major – who are members but not creations through a super soldier program.

The super-soldier program in Canada also known as the Weapon X program has taken subjects and mutants and enhanced them. The best-known examples of this program are Wolverine, Sabretooth, Silver Fox, Maverick, Deadpool, X-23, X-13, and Garrison Kane. There are others who are not as well-known and have, for the most part, either been killed or de-powered.

America continues to search for more working super soldiers. In both the comic book continuity as well as the Netflix television shows, it was highly probable that both Luke Cage’s experiment under Doctor Noah Bernstein and Jessica Jones’ car accident that gave her meta-human powers were originally experiments for the super soldier program. It was only when the experiments had gone out of control that Luke Cage came out with super strength and steel hard skin, while Jessica Jones acquired a gravity manipulation power and super strength.

This happens when the program is looking for other ways to make meta-humans. After Steve Rogers had abandoned Captain America’s mantle in the nineties, the government turned to John Walker who was known as the Super-Patriot back then and later became the red, white, and black costumed USAgent. Walker got his powers, not through any kind of formula but through an entity known as “The Power Broker” (aka Doctor Karl Malus).

John Walker as Captain America with Battlestar
John Walker as Captain America with Battlestar

The Power Broker’s process could give superhuman strength to anyone who was willing to pay the price. John Walker went through the process with his army buddies Battlestar, Left Wing, and Right Wing in an attempt to usurp Steve Rogers position as Captain America. Other characters that dealt with the Power Broker were Dennis “Demolition Man” Dunphy, Sharon Ventura (one of the Ms. Marvels) as well as several members of the Unlimited Class Wrestling Federation. However, it was only Walker and Battlestar that came aboard and worked as super soldiers for the government.

The other thing that few people talk about were the near misses that no one knows about. Professor Silas X. Cragg, an enemy of Captain America’s from World War II, appeared in the modern age with a super soldier formula variant. Cragg correctly surmised that if the super soldier formula worked well on a frail man like Steve Rogers, it would work awesomely on a normal man. Using an ex-convict he found on the street, he injected the formula into him so he could beat the stuffing out of Cap. It nearly worked as it boosted the convict’s strength by a factor of twelve. The convict took the name “Man Brute” and later “Blockbuster”. When he fought Cap, he nearly won.  While Cragg was later killed by his creation, he did manage to come up with a working solution.


Why Is This Important?

The Marvel Universe is constantly looking for good stories to work in many of their story arcs. Whether they’re looking to make a super soldier from the Extremis Program as told in Iron Man 3 or looking to bring in a character like Deathlock for Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., it is one of the constant elements buzzing in the background when government “men in black” come along and hush something up.

After all, the super-soldier formula was a critical plot point in making the Abomination in 2008’s The Incredible Hulk.  Mix that with some gamma rays and you get a monstrosity.

When Marvel had separated their main “616 Universe” from their “Ultimates” stories, the original mission for their Ultimates team was to find another super soldier solution. In that storyline, Bruce Banner mixed Steve Rogers’ blood with his “Hulk formula” to make a version of the Hulk who was out of control. Even their new members, Hank Pym and the Wasp, were looking for new solutions. That solution came when Pym not only created a shrinking “Pym particle” but adapted it for a “giant man” solution. He went further in bio-mutations to adapt his wife to being a “Wasp”.

It's just a simple process
It’s just a simple process

All of this started when Erskine made a miracle man who became an instant Adonis with some chemicals and some exotic radiation.

For the comic book readers, it’s what we all want. Who among us wouldn’t love to instantly become greater than what we are through a magic word, a chemical process, or an alien technology? It’s quick, easy, and cuts out all of the pain.

Therein also lies the terrible seduction of abuse. Those of us who are looking for the quick fix, instant gratification, or a short cut might do something irresponsible like take anabolic steroids, methamphetamines, artificial stimulants, or performance enhancing drugs.

While we look at that road, we look at the consequences of it. The health risks, the susceptibility of cancer, and possibly, heart disease and stroke are things we cannot gamble with. In this, we need to remember the super-soldier formula is a pipe dream. Power, whether it’s in the form of intellect or physical strength and speed, is always a matter of slowly attained discipline.

Ironically, it always comes back to the comic book mantra of power and responsibility. The slow, gradual attainment of power through discipline gives a person the time to learn and adapt. The body builder who spends hours at the gym watches himself in a mirror as he goes past each hurdle. The financial investor who pours over facts, figures, and informed calculations to build his fortune doesn’t waste his hard earned money to lose it all quickly. The intellect who spends time reading through volumes of text to become a better programmer, doctor, lawyer, or scientist builds on everything he learns and applies it with confidence.

Each lesson comes with the price of dedication and discipline.

The real heroes are the ones who work for what they have.

Christopher Peruzzi Christopher Peruzzi is a comic book shaman and zombie war survivalist. When our dystopian future falls upon us, Chris will be there preaching in the First Church of Marvel. As a comic book enthusiast for most of his life, Chris has written over 150 articles on geek culture. He does lectures on Superheroes: The New American Mythology and how today’s superheroes are the new pantheon of American Gods. His short story The Undead Rose was published within the zombie anthology, Once Upon An Apocalypse by Chaosium Press. He writes regularly on zombie war preparedness and the Cthulhu mythos. Chris lives in Freehold with his wife and fellow SuperWhoLock fan, Sharon, and both are ready for their first TARDIS trip.